La réhabilitation des conditions de vie dans les territoires contaminés par l'accident de Tchernobyl en Biélorussie

Liste des articles classés dans : Abstracts


LEPICARD S., HERIARD DUBREUIL G. Practical Improvement of the Radiological Quality of Milk Produced by Peasant Farmers in the Territories of Belarus Contaminated by the Chernobyl Accident.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Vol. 56, N° 1-2, 2001, pp. 241-253.

The Chernobyl post-accident has highlighted how the sudden emergence of persistent radioactive contamination in the environment is severely affecting the quality of life of the inhabitants in the concerned territories. The management of this situation is complex, mainly conditioned by the abilty of the inhabitants themselves to be directly involved in the process of improving their living conditions. In this process, quality of life cannot be restricted solely to the dimension of radiological risk, but needs to encompass the diverse aspects of daily living, including the social, psychological, economic, political and ethical aspects. This paper presents the experience of the involvement of a group of peasant farmers from a village in the Republic of Belarus, in the process of improving the radiological quality of privately produced milk. This experience took place in the context of the ETHOS project, funded by the radiation protection research programme of the European Commission. The principal objective was to implement a complementary approach to the rehabilitation strategies adopted so far in the contaminated territories of the Republic of Belarus. This paper retraces the process involvement of the inhabitants in a working group. It describes the characterisation of the situation by local actors, the opening of new possible actions to improve the radiological quaity of milk at the individual level and the positive consequences at the scale of the village. The ETHOS project also illustrates how the scientific knowledge accumulated over many years since the Chernobyl accident in the field of radiation protection and radioecology can enter into local practices in the forme of practical tools, which can be used by the population to produce significant improvements in the radiological situation.


LOCHARD J. - Living in Contaminated Territories: A Lesson in Stakeholder Involvement.
In: ’Current Trends in Radiation Protection’, EDP Sciences, 2004, pp. 211-220.

Expereince of long term radioactive contamination of the environment, especially in the territories the most affected by the Chernobyl accident, have shown that the omnipresence of radioactivity in the daily life was deeply altering the relationships of the individuals towards their environment, perceived as globally deteriorated, and to the others. Inhabitants of contaminated territories experience a general loss of control on their daily life and on the means to improve their protection and the one of their children. The need to develop comprehensive and inclusive approaches for the long term management and rehabilitation of potentially contaminated areas is now broadly recognised, notably in the post September 11th context. The experience of the ETHOS project in the republic of Belarus directly affected by the Chernobyl accident, illustrates a successful participatory approach involving the population and the local authorities and professionals in the day-to-day management of the radiological situation. This experience has shown that the direct involvement of the population in the management of the radiological situation was a necessary approach to complete the rehabilitation programme implemented by public authorities in contaminated territories, especially in the long term. This paper highlights, through the major outcomes of the ETHOS experience, some key features of the stakeholder involvement process and the role it can play in the management of long term contaminated sites and territories.


HERIARD DUBREUIL G., OLLAGNON H. - De la gestion de l’accident à la réhabilitation des conditions de vie. 
In : ’Les silences de Tchernobyl’, Grandazzi G., Lemarchand F. (Eds.), Editions Autrement, 2004, pp. 57-79.

La catastrophe de Tchernobyl constitue toujours pour des millions de personnes un problème aigu et quotidien. Depuis l'accident, les objectifs et les priorités de la gestion accidentelle et post-accidentalle ont évolué selon les contextes politiques, avec des conséquences souvent dramatiques. Dans la première période, les stratégies mises en œuvre dans les pays les plus touchés par cet accident (Biélorussie, Ukraine, Russie) relèvent des pratiques administratives et politiques du système soviétique, cela jusqu'à sa disparition, en 1991. Puis chaque pays, dans son contexte politique propre, a élaboré et mis en œuvre des stratégies. Toutes reposent sur une même conception, d'abord radiologique, de la situation. Cette conception est encore celle qui prévaut dans les dispositifs préventifs de gestion des accidents nucléaires, notamment en Europe de l'Ouest.